Health activities can be seen to fall into the following
that must be conducted on a community basis:
- Supervision of community food, water, and milk
supplies as well as medication, household items,
toys, and recreational equipment.
- Insect, Rodent, and other Vector control.
- Environmental pollution including atmospheric,
soil, and aquatic pollution control, prevention
of radiation hazards; and noise abatement.
Activities designed for prevention of illness, disability,
or premature death from:
- Communicable Diseases, including Parasitic
- Dietary Deficiencies or Excesses.
- Behavioural disorders, including alcoholism,
drug habituation, narcotic addiction, certain
aspects of delinquency, and suicide.
- Mental illness, including mental retardation.
- Allergic manifestations and their community
- Acute and chronic respiratory diseases.
- Nepotistic diseases.
- Cardiac and Cerebro-Vascular diseases.
- Metabolic diseases.
- Certain hereditary or genetic conditions.
- Occupational diseases.
- Home, vehicular, and industrial accidents.
- Dental disorders, including dental caries and
- Certain risks of maternity, and development.
Activities related to comprehensive health care:
- Promotion of development, availability, and
quality of health personnel, facilities, and services
in the broadest sense.
- Operation of programs for early detection of
- Promotion and operation of emergency medical
- Promotion and operations of treatment centres,
varying from disease speciality clinics to comprehensive
health centres and hospitals.
- Facilitation of and participation in postgraduate
and continuing health professional education.
concerned with collection, preservation, analysis,
and use of vital records.
education and motivation in personal and community
health planning, management, and evaluation.
? scientific, technical, and administrative."
the above authentic declarations, the jurisdiction,
scope, and function of the field becomes apparent. It
may be concluded that Public Health is a spectrum of
functions which together form the whole. There are 17
recognised sub?specialities, which if grouped in divisions
would be as follows:
This speciality concerns with Planning, Policy, Rules,
Regulations, Management, Hospital Administration, Project
Management, Health Economics, Finance, Budgeting, and
Accounting, Quality Assurance, Manpower Development
(Medical/Health Professional Education), Operations
Research, Demography, Social Medicine, Specific Preventive
Programmes such as Emergency and Disaster Services and
Control Systems, Community Mental Health, Occupational
Health, etc, and all related areas.
This speciality concerns with the study of health related
events (disease, health hazards), in relation to the
population, their dynamics, and determinants. The diagnosis
and control of infectious disease, non?infectious diseases,
applied medical microbiology, entomology, parasitology,
and related disciplines.
This speciality relates to the disciplines which are
required to ensure health promotion, protection, and
services for families, with particular reference to
the groups which are more vulnerable, e.g. women, &
children. The main sections include Reproductive Health,
Child Health (Preventive Paediatrics), Nutrition & Dietetics,
Family Medicine, and related disciplines.
Primary Health Care.
This is the approach / strategy on which our whole public
sector health system is based, and the pivot around
which all health care and health manpower programmes
have to develop.
Emergency & Disaster Medical Services.
This is a team sub?speciality. And concerns with the
design, management, and delivery, of medical & health
care in emergency and disaster situations.
Environmental and Occupational Health.
This speciality concerns with the protection and prevention
of environmental health hazards. This is now merging
with Occupational Health which is the speciality related
to prevention and control of health hazards in the work
dilemma of the subject is this that there has been an
absolute lack of adequately qualified manpower in the
field of Public Health in Balochistan. Due to this,
when the present generation of qualified Public Health
Physicians took up the task of establishing the field
and undertaking long term reorganisation initiatives,
the situation was seen as out of place and a threat,
with the dire consequences that the Health System in
Balochistan is now forced to face, and in particular
the problems generated for the very existence of the
IPH. The present dilemma is due also to the fact that
the true understanding of the subject is still lacking
amongst even the so called 'elite' of the health sector